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1.   Meaning of Oroan.

2.   Who are Kurukhs?.

3.  Nomadic Type of History.

4   Rohtashgarh Fort.


1. Meaning of Oroan

Kurukhs are known in different names as Uroan, Kurux, Kurukh, Kunrukh, Oroan, Kishan, Kunha, Kunhar, Kunk, Kunna, Kuda, Kola, Morva, Birhor, Dhangar, Kurka, Kudkali etc. The name by which the Oraons know themselves is Kurukh or Kurunkh, and they are recognised by the government as Oroan, which has been applied to them by Hindus and outsiders. According to Dr. N. Lahovary in "Dravidian Origins and the West” published by Orient Longmans, Bombay, 1963, page no.183,in Dravidian (C.Dr) language Kurukh meansto seize’.” Hindus and other people has been seized any kurukh and used them a family servent or moneylenders continue to charge exorbitant rates of interest and fully exploit the Kurukhs and treat them as a family worker. Therefore it may be suggested that the name is derived from this characteristic of the Oraons. It was the opinion that the word kurukh might be identified with the Kolarian horo, 'man', and explained the term Oraon as the totem of one of the septs into which the Kurukhs were divided. Its base being orgoran, hawk or cunny bird, used as the name of a totemistic sept. Someone, however, suggested a connection with the Kaikari, urupai, man; Burgandi urapo, man; urang, men. The Kaikaris are a Telugu caste, and as the Oraons are believed to have come from the south of India. In a similar way Kurukh may be connected with Tamil kurugu, an eagle, and be the name of a totemistic relations. Compare also names, such as Korava, Kurru, a dialect of Tamil, and Kudagu. In about 100 B.C Kurukhs were lived in Nerbudda valley after that they came to the Rohtasgah. The farm servant who pours the seed through the tube of the sowing-ploughis known as ‘Oraya’ in Nerbudda valley, this word is probably derived from the verb urna to pour, and means 'one who pours.' Since the principal characteristic of the Oraons among the Hindus is their universal employment as farm-servants and labourers, it may be suggested that the name is derived from this term. One other name by which Kurukhs are known to outsiders, Dhangar means a farm servant, Kuda a digger, and Kisan a cultivator. The name Oraon and its variant Orao is very close to Oraya, which, means a farm-servant.

2.Who are Kurukhs?                                                                                                                                Top

The Oraons are an important Dravidian tribe of the Chhotanagpur. They are the  offspring of Indus Valley Civilization, According to their oral history and evidence of this fact, their culture, custom, food, ornaments and language, which are closely related to the Indus Valley Civilization. Once they were lived in "Indus Valley Civilization" before 2500 B.C., they  lived there peacefully and sophisticated life. They were not enable to stay there, due to frequent attacks of Aryans, flood and anomalous atmosphere. They had been migrated to west coast of India at Karnatka region, M.P., than they came to Rohtashgarh of Bihar, where they made a huge fort. But here also, they could not stay a long time, because they had been driven out by the Cheroes and Afgans/Mugals. And finally they went and settled to the Chhotangpur plateau in Jharkhand state. They were divided into two flocks  from Rohtasgarh, one went to the Rajmahal area in Santhal Pargran region and made their resending place at plate of river Ganga. Today they are called Malto Paharia and speak Malto. Another larger flock came to the Chhotanagpur plateau in Jharkhad state. They are Kurukhs.

Presently they are living in Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, West Bangal, Assam, Andaman & Nicobar island, Tripura, U.P. and Orissa states of India. They are found in  Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh Srilanka and Marisus  countries of the world. A kurukh scholar Dr. Nirmal Minz, former principal of Gossnar Collage Ranchi, expressed - "Kurukh tribal people besides Chhotanagpur, largely found  in Kurus countary (today it is called Sasaram area in Bihar and the area of Rohtashgarh), Khusra, Doyrasha, Panary, Dori, Chhechhari, Nawagarh, Biru, Barwe, Gangpur, Banai Bangla, Sambalpur, Rajgangpur, Manoharpur, Jashpur, Raigarh, Surguja, Pargana and minor at Chakardharpur, Chaibasa, old Purnia, Champaran, Duwars in West Bangal, Jalpaiguri and at Dhinajpur and nearest area of Bangla Desh. Some have gone to the metropolitan cities in Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Madras to find job/employment and now they are settled there. He described that some well educated people had been gone for better job to the well developed countries, like Britain and America, and settled there". There are about 90,000 people reside in Dhinajpur, Rangpur, Bogra and Rajshahi districts in Bangla Desh according to a professor of Dhaka Univercity. But they like to speak Sadri rather than Kurukh, only 25000 kurukhs are speaking their mother tongue. Some people gone to the Marisus country to be a labor and settled there.

According to the government record of 1997, population of the Kurukh tribes are 20,53,000(Oroan -18,34,000, Kisan - 2,19,000). About 25 percent of the population are Christians, majority of the educated, have became Christian. Llanguage of the Oraon tribe, known as Kurukh. It is a spoken language and generally has no written form. Kurukh has a rich oral literature, with innumerable fables, fairy tales, ballads,  riddles and popular sayings. Literate Kurukhs write their language in other, Hindi, Bangla or English script. The Kurukhs are a small race (average 5 ft. 2 in.); the usual color is dark brown, but some are as light as Hindus. They are heavy-jawed, with large mouths, thick lips and projecting teeth. Their noses are flat and their hair black and curled. Kurukh tribes are divided in various clains related with the animals, birds, plants and minerals. Every village has a an elected person or hereditary priest or headman, called Naigas or Baiga. They are responsible for religious and social activities of the village.

Oroan people like to call themselves 'Kurukh', but another people called them in a word 'Oroan'. Oroan word is also recognized by the Indian Government and all records of the Oroan people maintained by this name. Another famous name of Oraon is Kurukh. Kurukhs are known in different names as Uroan, Kurux, Kurukh, Kunrukh, Oroan, Kishan, Kunha, Kunhar, Kunk, Kunna, Kuda, Kola, Morva, Birhor, Dhangar, Kurka, Kudkali etc.They are commonly known in the Central Provinces as Dhangar or Dhangar-Oraon. In Chotanagpur the word Dhangar means a farm servant engaged according to a special customary contract, and it has come to be applied to the Oraons, who are commonly employed in this capacity. Kuda means a digger or navvy in Uriya, and enquiries made by Mr. B.C. Mazumdar and Mr. Hira Lal have demonstrated that the 18,000 persons returned under this designation from Raigarh and Sambalpur in 1901 were really Oraons. The same remark applies to 33,000 persons returned from Sambalpur as Kisan or cultivator, these also being members of the tribe.

Like many other ethnic groups, Kurukhs worship different symbols of the nature. They however, believe only as the dwellings of the spirit in that symbols, there is a creator of the universe and sun is considered only as symbol of God's glorious power and brightness,they reverence the sun,and acknowledge a supreme god, Dharme or Dharmesh, who exists in the sun. Kurukhs believe in different gods having symbolic representation in villages, agricultural assets, forests, epidemics etc. They satisfy these gods through religious festivals, similar to those of the other community. Karma and Sarhul are two main festival of Kurukhs. Karama  is a worship of trees performed symbolically with the  Nauclea parvifolia(Kadam) tree or its branches. Karma festival is celebrated, when the rice is ready for planting out and it is the renewal of vegetation. Sarhul festival cannot be done till the sal tree gives the flowers for the ceremony. This takes place about the beginning of April on any day when the tree is in flower. Sarhul is associated with praying for the fertility of land and a good paddy harvest.They either bury or burn the dead. As a mark of respect to the deceased they offer flowers and leaves of sacred trees to the dead on the pyres.

Poverty, illiteracy and rapid dispossession of     land, forcing increasing number of Kurukhs to become a laborer.  Moneylenders continue to charge exorbitant rates of interest and fully exploit the Kurukhs and treat them as a family worker.They did not get much modern education. Poverty is the main cause of their illiteracy. Christian missionaries  tried to spread education among them. Many Kurukhs  are now adopting Christianity. At present, some non-government oorganisations as well government  work among them and implement programmes for their socio-economic development. Today they are progressing well with other people of the society.

3. Nomadic Type of History.                                                                                        Top

3.1. Indus Valley Civilization - Origin of Kurukhs

According to the history and traditions of Kurukhs, once they were lived in "Indus Valley Civilization" before 2500 B.C., peacefully and sophisticated life with another people of Indus valley. The earliest cities Mohenjodaro and Harappa to be remained  at Indus Valley of Sind. Further up the another ancient cities were discovered, as Rupar near Chandigarh,and Lothal near Ahmadabad etc. These cities had been made with carefully planed before houses and streets built. Houses were built of brick (Fig.1) and had thick, strong walls, which were plastered and coloured, roofs were flat, windows and doors were probably made of wood. The streets ran straight and at right angles to each other. The houses were built on both side of the street. Lothal was the foreign export-emport center, had a big harbor. It can be seen till today. With anothe people of Indus Kurukhs people had trading to the other part of Asia, Africa and Egypt, they had trading contact with people of Sumer. Even in those days there was trade between India and other parts of world. They used to ate meat, fish and wheat, barely and fruits, they liked particularly pomegranates and bananas. They knew how to weave cotton women wore a short skirt and lining par (near boarder) cotton saree, as like kurukh women are wearing today.The men wrapped long pieces of cloth around themselves, they liked most lonngi, dhoti, feta and langot as today adivasis are wearing. They discovered couper, bronz, tin and lead and made tools and knives for agriculture and domestic use. One ancient tools has been found in Palamu district of Jharkhand state, which is similar to the tools of Indus Valley. Now it is kept in museum of Patna. It proofs that kurukhs are descendants of Indus civilization. It is proofed from the seals and scripts, that people of the Indus were spoken star as binko, village as paddu and woman as ali and man as aal. Even today kurukhs says Binko, padda, aali and aal respectively.

Indus valley civilization have been destroyed by floods, which came regularly; or there may have been an epidemic or some terrible disease which killed the people. The climate also began to change and the region became more and more dry and like a desert (once desert of Rajasthan was a big fertile plane), or else the cities may have been attacked by the Aryans. There has so many cast lived in Indus Valley. Kurukhs are from  Dravidian family and they had relation between Brahui and other people of Indus. They were very honest, simple and peaceful persons, another people had been always unnecessary pressurized and  attacked them. As like another Dravidian people of Indus, Kurukhs were unable to stay there. They have migrated in about 2500 B.C. to North East and South West region from Baluchistan (Area of Indus River). Brahuies had been already went out to the North West region in 3000 B.C.


3.2. Migration Paths:

This migration paths (Fig.3) has been drowned by Elefenbein,1987 is called Bloch's hypothesis. According to this migration paths Brahui tribes were migrated from Baluchistan, area of Indus Valley in different direction. One can see in fig.3, the tribes which spoke Brahui, split into three as they moved south- east from the Baluchistan province of Pakistan, in older times. The fourth one went to the Sindh province in Pakistan. Figure 3 shows the area in Baluchistan where they speak Brahui even now. In the Figure one of these tribes who were going south - east, split into two at Rohtasgarh in the present state of Bihar. After splitting, one went to the Raj-Mahal hills near Santhal Pargna and settled there, and the other went to the Chhotanagpur plateau. These were the Kurukh ( Oraon ) speaking tribes.


These tribes who were going south-east from Baluchistan came and lived at west coast of India at carnatic region. There was a king of Karkal and Karkai named 'Kank Pany'. These are located in Carnatic area. He was a Kurukh king and made fort of 'Doshar'. Kurukhs are again migrated from here and through plane of Nerbudda River they came to Amarkantak, than Kat region, where they made Annandgarh and Pipragarh in Madya Pradesh. They spent 500 years up to reach here. Thereafter they had been living in flat area, near Son River and Karamanas marday. They said this place Kurus Country. They had been made various fort during the year 900-800 B.C. One of these is Rohtashgarh fort in Dehri On-Sone of Bihar state.


3.3. Kurukhs in Rohtasgath (500-400 B.C):

Rohtashgarh is in Kurus, where Kurukhs made a hugh fort. They had their own King named Raja Harichandra. They were rich and spent more time peacefully and good condition. It was the period between 500-400 B.C. and called Gold Period of Kurukh's in Rohtasgarh. It is hill place called series of Kaimur hill and situated at 1490 fit above from sea level and 45 KM far from Dehri On-Sone and 39 KM from Sasaram. It now occupies a part of the plateau about 4 miles east to west and 5 miles north to south, 28 miles in circumference. It is considered one of the largest and strongest hill forts in India. This fort served as a safe shelter for treasures and families of Sher Shah Suri, Shah Jahan, maan singh, Mir Qasim. Records suggest that there are 84 passages to the hill with 14 main gates entry. However 10 were closed by Sher Shah Suri.  

In about 100 B.C., king of Cheros, descendants of Sung had been attacked at least three times, but they were defeated by the Kurukhs. Now Cheros are the tribal of India, found in Palamu and Chaibasa region , migrated from the sub-Himalayan tract and they bear the Dravadian physiognomy with light brown complexion. In 1538, it is said that Sher Shah Suri attacked to the fort on Sarhul - the festival of the Kurukhs, when they were dead drunk. He has chosen  this day, because he had known, Kurukhs were very strong and brave, he can't succeeded in another day. Singi Dai, princess of Rohtashgarh, and her friends Champa and kaili were the most brave women of Tribes. They have show the soldier of Sher Shah, coming to the fort, at once, they used their mind in leadership of Singi Dai. All men  were dead drunk thrugh the hadia (house made rice bear). Women dressed on men clothes , they tied up pheta in head, weared dhoti, trousers and langot, armed with weapons and  went out to the battle field. Enemies are driven out from the fort three times. A milkmaid from another village had been coming every day to Rohtasgarh for selling milk. Afghan soldiers told her that, Kurukhs are very strong and brave, we can not fight against them. Milkmaid said " Whole you are stupid, they are not men, but women. All Kurukh men are in dead alike, after drunken hadia. She told them some action to reorganization women, she continued, if they will taking water from both hand and wash their faces with both hands, they are women and if they will wash faces with their one hand, than they are men. Women were washing their faces into Son River after defeating enemies and driven out them from the city. Afghans seen  them from far away. They went again to the fort and attacked and captured the fort. Kurukhs are defeated  and they were driven out by forcely  from  Rohtasgarh. 


3.4. Settled in Chhotanagpur:

 As we know Kurukhs are divided into two group from Rohtasgarh, one group had been went to the Chhotangpur plateau. It is told that King, Queen and their son Ruidas and their soldier came to a village named Sutiyanba at near Ranchi. Mundas were there already engaged in Chhotanagpur. Head of the soldier Mr. Lakhser had came down from his horse and requested from Shri Manki Madira leader of Mundas to escape themselves and to give house for stay. Manki Madira have put off shield from his body and  gave food with beef and Kodatoli and Jonkhtoli for their stay. Shri Budhwa Oroan, Parha leader of Oroan had borned from daughter in low of Lakhser at village Sutyanba. Who had been governed Chhotangpur for some years. He had made Navratangarh of Donysa. Another group of Kurukh driven out from Rohtasgarh have went to the Rajmahal hill sereis of Santhal Pargrna, after that they have residing bank of Ganga River. Maltos at Litipara of Dumaka and Sour Pahadia people are the same people. Sour Pahadia people are speaking is 90% Kurukh language.


3.4.1 Traditions And Customs

Ancestors of the Oraons or Kurukhs often call themselves." Towards Lohardaga the Oraons found themselves among the Mundas or Kols, who probably retired by degrees and left them in possession of the country. "The Oraons," Father Dehon states, "are an exceedingly prolific tribe and soon become the preponderant element, while the Mundas, being conservative and averse to living among strangers, emigrate towards another jungle.The Mundas hate zamindars, and whenever they can do so, prefer to live in a retired corner in full possession of their small holding; and it is not at all improbable that, as the zamindars took possession of the newly-formed villages, they retired towards the east, while the Oraons, being good beasts of burden and more accustomed to subjection, remained." In view of the fine physique and martial character of the Larka or Fighting Kols or Mundas, Dalton was sceptical of the theory that they could ever have retired before the Oraons; but in addition to the fact that many villages in which Oraons now live have Mundari names, it may be noted that the headman of an Oraon village is termed Munda and is considered to be descended from its founder, while for the Pahan or priest of the village gods, the Oraons always employ a Munda if available, and it is one of the Pahan's duties to point out the boundary of the village in cases of dispute; this is a function regularly assigned to the earliest residents, and seems to be strong evidence that the Oraons found the Mundas settled in Chota Nagpur when they arrived there. It is not necessary to suppose that any conquest or forcible expropriation took place; and it is probable that, as the country was opened up, the Mundas by preference retired to the wilder forest tracts, just as in the Central Provinces the Korkus and Baigas gave way to the Gonds, and the Gonds themselves relinquished the open country to the Hindus. None of the writers quoted notice the name Munda as applied to the headman of an Oraon village, but it can hardly be doubted that it is connected with that of the tribe; and it would be interesting also to know whether the Pahan or village priest takes his name from the Pans or Gandas. Dalton says that the Pans are domesticated as essential constituents of every Ho or Kol village community, but does not allude to their presence among the Oraons. The custom in the Central Provinces in Gond villages is that the village priest is always known as Baiga, because in some localities members of the Baiga tribe are commonly employed here. In villages first settled by Oraons, the population, Father Dehon states, is divided into three khunts, or branches, named after the Munda, Pahan and Mahto, the founders of the three branches being held to have been sons of the first settler. Members of each branch belong therefore to the same sept or got. Each khunt  has a share of the village lands.


3.4.2 Tribal Land Rules

Tribes of the Chhotangapur had privilege to divide lands among them as per their own customs and they ruled people by their own tenet. They were lived with brotherhood. In a village, there are bhunihar family, raiyat family and other worker people lived peacefully. Mundas had a custom called Manki Munda System, and among Oroans had a custom called Parha Panchayat System. Pati was made by different Munda villages and headman of the Pati was called Manki Munda. Similarly, organization of several Oroan villages was known as Parha Panchayat and its headman was called Parha Raja. Decisions were taken in big issues in  both unit as democratic manner. Since very old era, Tribes of Chhotanagpur ruled the people with democratic system. Their rule was participatory democracy, not representative democracy. Political leaders of the people were not cruel between the people, but  they lived very simple  manner as the public. Pahan was look after the religious program in a Oroan village. In Munda or Mahto village, one side Pahan perform religious program and other side Mundas and Mahtas were taking care about the administrative section of the village. Panchayat and its members had the power to decide resolution in any important or rigid matter. Lands of the village were divided in different categories, which were called bhuinhari khas(bakhast bhuinhar), bhuinhari aam, pahnai, matoi, mundai, bhut khet, dali katari, gairahi, masna, sarna, jhakra patra, deshwali, mundari, khuntkatti and kodkar etc. Besides bakhast bhuinhar, khuntkatti and kadkar; all lands were used be the people of society. They were using lands as per social decisions.


3.4.3 Landlord And Jamindari System

Mundas and Oroans made Madra Munda as a king of Chhotanagpur, that time Palkot was the headquarter of Nagvansi kings. In 1616, descendent of Nagvansi, king Durjan Sal bacame a king of Chhotanagpur. He made Ramgarh, as a capital of the Chhotanagpur. This time Jahangir was the Mugal King of Delhi. He  demanded tax of Oroan and Munda people. Durjan Sal was unable to pay this vital tax. Janhagir attacked to the Ramgarh by governer Ebrahim Khan. King Durjan Sal had sized and he had taken to the Jail of Gavalior, where he had spent 15 years. During this period Durjan Sal seen that how did Mugal emperors live with honor of the kingdom. King Durjan sal was effected with their life style and made them as his friend. That time bank of the river sankh was very famous for the diamond. Durjan Sal was the specialist of diamond and he  was  also became the specialist to recognize diamond of Govalior. After 15 years Mugal king make him free from the jail owing to his characteristic and the quality.  He came came back with some Hindu ministers to Ramgarh. Here Durjan Sal changed his culture and became a member of Aryan culture. Responsibility of Jamindari was given to him by the emperor.  Lands of the adivasis had been taken for the king. King had authorized some people of the village by issuing written certificates to be a landlord and collect taxes.  Taxes rules and landlord rules started. In 1831, Jagarnath became a King of Chhotanagpur and did not able to pay the taxes of Chhotanagpur.

This landlord and Jamindari  system was destroyed the social and economical structure of the tribes of Chhotanapur. Tribes had been never wanted to leave from land, due to deep tied with the land. Lacs of the tribes were died for the land in several war against landlords, contractors and British rulers. Dead bodies of the tribes were buried into the tomb located at Hursi. A big stone was kept straight in tomb to remind rights to the land of ancestors. This stone was the symbol of rights of the land.


3.4.4 Tribal Revolutions

In 1765, Mugal emperor Shah Alam  was handed over the rule to East India Company in Bangal, Orissa and Bihar. In 1770, British captain Camac defeated the king of Ramgarh and captured the kingdom. Chatra was the first headquarter on that time. In 1771, king of Plamu was defeated. In 1773, British ruler were defeated king of Chhtanagpur; after that Nagpur, Ramgarh and Plamu were came under presidency of Calcutta. Both, Civil Court was established  and a army camp made in Hazaribagh in 1773.  Chapra was the administrative headquarter of Commissionery of Chhtanagpur since 1771 to 1780. In 1793, British Government was made Jamindary Pratha as a permanent arrangement in whole over Jharkhand, purpose was to earn more money to the government. In 1797, Munda revolt was happened in leadership of Vishnu Manki, and Chro revolt at Plamu in 1800, in leadership of Bhukhan Singh.  In 1831, Jagarnath became a King of Chhotanagpur. Taxes rules and landlord rules started. Jagarnath was did not pay the taxes of Chhotanagpur. In 1832, war started between British and Tribes. Kol Insurrection was starte in 1832 in leadership of Budho Bhagat, Ganga Narayan revolt was happened in 1832. Ho revolt in 1837.  In 1855, revolt was started in whole Santhal Pargna with the leadership of Sidho and Kanho brothers. Al least ten thousand Santhals were killed in the revolt. This rebellion was started against the Money lenders.Bhokta  revolution in 1857 in leadership of Bhagirathi Manjhi(Chero tribes were also joined revolution) and Adivasi revolution, Munda revolt at Tamar in 1860 in leadership of Dukhan Mankin and Birsa Revolt(1895), In 1895 war started against Sikh, called Sardar War. Large number of people sheltered through the sword.  Tana Bhagat revolution started in 1914 (leader- Jatra Oroan), War between Kurukh and Munda was started at Murma ground near Mandar. Mundas were defeated. In memory of this victory Kurukh people celebrate a big Mela every year at Murma. In ancient time it was being the traditional Mela and Jatra dances was happening. But now a days it was converted into a big business market.


3.4.5 Chhotanagpur Tanancy Act

In 1833, Lohardaga, Hazaribagh and Manbhum were made districts and Ranchi was made headquarter of Chhotanagpur by Wilkinson. In 1834, a land rule was made which was the first land rule in Chhotanagpur and called Wilkkinson rule. Bhuinhari Servey and Chhotanagpur Tenancy Act were made in 1869. In view of several revolt, a Christian Missionary named Father Hofman was appointed to study the  tribes culture, customs and life style. He had submitted a vital survey report of tribes life in 1903 to the British Government. Chhotanagpur Tanancy Act was passed in 1908 by the British Government in whole over Chhotanagpur region, which was the good exercise of British Government among tribal people; and it is become shelter of the lands of tribal people. Now tribes have a chance to save their land and have found an opportunity to manage their own  house and property.


3.5. Role of Christian Missionaries:

 In 2nd November 1845, first time four missionaries were came to Ranchi, from Barlin city of Germany. After that, many missionaries have came to Chhotangapur from different churches. The British colonial power in order to create a class for manning its ruling apparatus utilized Christian missionaries to open educational institutions and schools in the area, which produced a section of tribal people educated in western pattern. Britishers succeeded in creating a class within the otherwise classless tribal society. This was in fact, the beginning of the dilution of tribal identity. Amit Ghos said "Missionaries functioned according to well chalked out program in the Chhotangpur. They produced an ideology for the peasant system emerging in the tribal region and grafted the notion of private property in land to the communal mode of production, articulated the demands of tribals as peasant proprietors for the restoration of land, regulation of rent, and abolition of of feudal dues, guided peasant struggles against Zamindars, worked for the passage of agrarian law and setup peasant organizations like co-operative credit societies. In fact, they gave a new sense of self-respect to the tribal peasants and sought to create a separate identity of them."  Christian mission offered a useful institutional canopy over an area seething with adivasi discontent and helped usher in the associational density that was a feature af adivasi mobilization in the early 20th century. Soon numerous assciations wre formed to raise funds for educating adivasis and fight diku operation like the Christian association in 1898 by Lutheran gradates, Christian Students Organization in 1912, Chhotanagpur Charitable Association in 1912, Chhotanagpur Unnati Samaj in 1915, Decca Students Union in 1916, Catholics Sabha in 1935. There were mostly initiatives of Lutheran and Anglican youth leaders, further they were followed by Catholics who formed Catholic Sabha. Owing to the exposure and motivation given to them by the Christian missionaries a sense of new political awareness developed among the tribal people in the national context. An entire generation of Christian tribal politicians, emerging from a comparatively earlier access to education, founded and established the movement for state autonomy that started in the late 1930's, with active support of German Evangelical Lutheran Church. Emergence of some semi-political organizations like, Chotanagpur Unnati Samaj(1915), whose  members were mostly Christian tribals  from the Lutheram and Anglican congregations. It was led by Joel Lakra and Catholic Sabha (1935), through the unifying efforts of Ignes Beck, a Catholic politician, that all these associations merged to become the Chotanagpur Adivasi Mahasabh(1938), which was to start the movement for a separate state for tribals.  Later, finally it turned into the first political Party of the tribals  (1949) known as Jharkhand Party, which became the largest opposition entity in the Bihar assembly in the 1952s with figures like Jaipal Singh, Theodor surin, Ignace beck, Paul Dayal, Julius Tigga, Bonifas Lakra, Samuel Purti, N.E. Horo and Jastin Richard working in tandem with prominent non-Christian leader Bandiram Oroan . Ironically, except one Bandiram Oraon all the prominent leaders of the party were Christians. Later Theble Oroan and  Kartik Oroan came to the Party.  Again Jharkhand Party succeeded 1n 1957. There is a sense now that the Christian activism has retreated and been superseded by the frenetic nature of ethno regionalist clamor splitting into various factions, merging with the Congress in 1963, the locus of social movement activity shifting to agrarian struggles in in the Santhal Pargana led by Shibu Soren' s Jarkhand Mukti Morcha in the mid 1970s, the agitationnist phase of the All Jharkhand Students Union(AJSU)  in the mid 1980s leading to formation of the Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council in 1995 prior to the formation of the Jharkhand state in November 2000.


3.6. Jharkhand Movement:

The Jharkhand movement, which was basically for the cause of tribals, turmoil is basically a manifestation of tribal youths' urge to identify the Jharkhand nationalism, got momentum, when Jharkhand Party won all the 33 reserved tribal seats in Bihar assembly in 1952 and became the main opposition party.  Later in 1955 it placed a demand for a separate Jharkhand state comprising of the contiguous regions of Bihar, West Bengal , Orissa and Madhya Pradesh before the State Reorganization Commission. The demand was however rejected on grounds of some reasons. Jharkhand movement got a set back in 1963 when the Jharkhand Party merged with Congress with ministerial berth to Jaipal Singh, the main tribal leader belonging to Munda tribe.  Gradually, leaders emerging from different ethnic groups in the name of Jharkhand movement also became commodities in the market of politics to be purchased by the highest bidder of the contemporary ruling party.  This political turmoil however provided an opportunity to the forces like Left Extremists, Social Action Groups and Christian Action Groups to infiltrate into the Jharkhand movement.


3.7. Tribal & Regional Language department in Ranchi University

Opening of Tribal and Regional Language department in Ranchi University in 1981 was a landmark event in this regard. This department started post-graduate teaching of the following five dialects: Mundari, Santali, Kurukh, Kharia and Ho, of the region being spoken by the prominent tribal groups. This newly created department, which worked as a midwife to help the delivery of a new concept of Jharkhand nationality - was entrusted with the task to develop these dialects into languages and to propagate the spirit of Jharkhand nationalism from urban centres to the remotest and nearly inaccessible parts of the region. This department also provided leadership to the Jharkhandi students, who gradually became vanguard to the movement for the demand of separate Jharkhand State. This department has been conducted various Kurukh courses  from Intermadiate(12th) to Post-Graduate students. So many books, like as poem, songs and story etc. are written for the courses. Now this language is developing gradually.


3.8.New States  and expectation of Tribal

New Jharkhand state along with Utranchal and Chhattisgarh states were created in year November 2000. Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh have the majority of tribal. Both Adi-Vashis, Shri Bab Lal Marandi and Shri Ajit Jogi were became first Chief Ministers of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. We have seen, Jharkhand movement was basically a manifestation of tribal youths' urge to identify the Jharkhand nationalism  with tribal welfare. With the natural growth of careerism among the students and unemployed youths , when the state of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh were born by the end of twentieth century the tribal people came up with the demand for their employment. Kurukhs are inhabitants both on Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. Now a day Kurukhs are developing with another tribal people. They are enjoying as various employment, they become member of parliament and legislative member in both state. Various government scheme and programme are runing for development of Tribal people.

Since the political leadership of the state is not in a position to meet the expectations of the Jharkhandis, it initiated the controversial domicile policy to divert their attention.  Babulal Marandi , the  former chief minister,  has thus opened the Pandora's box as only Jharkhandis whose fore fathers’ names were recorded in 1932 would be benefited.


3.9. Conclusion:

We studied the history of Kurukh tribe, which was very rich and well established. They has been nomadic and migrated one place to another place, since 2500 B.C. to near about 1540, until they settled in Chhotanagpur. They spent 4040 years in nomadic environment, therefore they can not develop their society and language like as south Indian society and their language. Even though, they are developing their society and language. At present, they can find anywhere in India, working in different field on private, semi-government and government organizations, even someone, who are well qualified, migrated to developed foreign countries, i.e. Unite states and England etc. They are becoming member of parliament and legislative member in both state. As a hockey player, many Kurukh players in Indian men and women hockey team, they have been spreading name of India in the world. Today they have school, collages, i.e. Tana  Bhghat Schools, Kartik Oroan Collage, Bero, Perm Veer Albart Collage Chainpur through the help of Government. Hospitals and School, Collages are opened by some private organization for development of tribes. Government has so many programme to implement the plan for development of Kurukh tribal, i.e. Rojgar Garantee Yojna, Indra Aawas Yojna, Pradhan Mantri Sark Yojna, Tribal Education Scheme etc.


4.Rohtashgarh Fort.                                                                                                                        top


It is hill place called series of Kaimur hill and situated at 1490 fit above from sea level and 45 KM far from Dehri On-Sone and 39 KM from Sasaram. It now occupies a part of the plateau about 4 miles east to west and 5 miles north to south, 28 miles in circumference. It is considered one of the largest and strongest hill forts in India. this fort served as a safe shelter for treasures and families of Sher Shah Suri, Shah Jahan, maan singh, Mir Qasim (and others during the revolt of 185). Records suggest that there are 84 passages to the hill with 14 main gates entry. However 10 were closed by Sher Shah Suri. There are several villages on the plateau and there are various kinds of cultivation and these yield sufficient provision for the garrison. There are abundant springs of good water, and though the fort is on the top of a hill which neighbours the sky, and on the sites of which well-water is found at great depth, yet inside the fort sweet water pours out on a little digging. In troubled times of war, Rohtasgarh fort served as the safe shelter for the treasures and families of


  Sher Shah, Shah Jehan, Maan Singh, Mir Qasim and others, and during the Revolt of 1857, the fort became the rallying point of defense. Price Shah Shuja (governor of Bengal and Orissa) preferred the fort of Rohtas together with the suba (Province) of Bihar in lieu of the provinces of Bengal & Orissa put together. 

As per legends, Rohita also called Ruidas, the son of King Harischandra, realizing danger to his life, stayed here several years in exile. The fort is named after this prince. The early history of Rohtasgarh is steeped in strange legends. One such Puranic story claims that childless Raja Harischandra was granted a son on a condition that he would kill him as an offering to the gods. The child named Rohita, realising danger to his life thus evaded his father as well as the gods. Rohtasgarh is believed to be named after this prince, Rohita who stayed here for serveral years in exile.

Legend gives way to history by the end of 15th century and the fort springs to life with the advent of the great Pathan, Sher Shah Suri, who was in revolt against his Mughal adversary, Humayun. Sher Shah is believed to have seized the fort from a Brahman Raja in 1538 as it was an ideal place for refuge and military operations. It was the time when Sher Shah was consolidating his power in Eastern India. He had defeated the Sultan of Bengal and acquired immense treasure from Bengal which included the Chatr (umbrella) and the throne. He was, therefore, looking for safe refuge for his family and new found wealth. Rohtasgarh suited his purpose and he was keen to attach it. Some historians consider it to be a negotiated deal while others discount it as Sher Shah’s inglorious seizure. It is believed that Raja of the fort was persuaded to give shelter to Sher Shah’s family. Hundreds of covered dolis (litters) with armed Afghan soldiers dressed as women entered the fort. When a few leading dolis in the train were examined at outer gate and found containing only women, the remaining were not checked and soon a considerable Afghan force gained entry. The hosts were taken by surprise and were soon overpowered. The Raja had to flee, leaving the fort to Sher Shah. Historians attribute this callous mentality, devoid of moral scruples, that characterised the Afghans of Hindustan. Sher Shah is further held guilty of deception and ingratitude to the Raja who had earlier given shelter and hospitality to his other family members for 18 months.

The fort sprawls across the rocky hill with its ramparts growing from the cliff. As befits the work of military fortification, these overpowering gates and bastions are devoid of Mughal embellishments but the ashlar is finely joined, even holding together the fallen rocks, the masses that, with time, have toppled from the structure. Throughout the Suri period the Rohtasgarh fort was guarded by a strong garrison of 10,000 matchlock men .

With the fall of Afghans, Akbar acquired the fort in 1587 and bestowed it upon Raja Maan Singh, who was appointed the Governor of Bihar. Rohtas became the provincial capital of the Mughals and Maan Singh remained here till 1607. Later in 1621, Prince Khurram rebelled against his father and sought refuge here in Rohtasgarh, together with his family and the Commandant of the fort Syed Mubarak surrendered the fort keys to the prince. Around this time, Khurram’s younger son, Murad was born here to his wife Arjamand Bano (Mumtaz Mahal). When Khurram became emperor Shah Jehan, he placed the fort under the command of Ikhlas Khan and during the reign of Aurangzeb, Ikhlas Khan was appointed the Governor of Bihar and the fort served as a state prison ranking next to Gwalior and Ranthambor. However, Rohtasgarh fort prison was exclusively for the nobles and princes of royal blood who were condemned to life imprisonment from where very few returned home.

Following the battle of Udhwanala in 1763, Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal was defeated by the East India company and he took shelter with his family in the rohtasgarh fort. A year later he once again lost his luck in the battle of Buxar and had to leave the fort. The British finally occupied the fort and Captain Goddard remained here for two months during which he
destroyed all the military stores. Thereafter, the fort was abandoned and lost in the mists of time and even today it is innocent of mass tourism. However, the masterpiece of Pathan architecture and a display of their talents will always justify a trip to Rohtasgarh and Sasaram. Steeped in history, Rohtasgarh Fort, now in a ruined state, was once the largest and strongest forts in India.