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Meaning of Oroan

Kurukhs are known in different names as Uroan, Kurux, Kurukh, Kunrukh, Oroan, Kishan, Kunha, Kunhar, Kunk, Kunna, Kuda, Kola, Morva, Birhor, Dhangar, Kurka, Kudkali etc. The name by which the Oraons know themselves is Kurukh or Kurunkh, and they are recognised by the government as Oroan, which has been applied to them by Hindus and outsiders. According to Dr. N. Lahovary in "Dravidian Origins and the West” published by Orient Longmans, Bombay, 1963, page no.183,in Dravidian (C.Dr) language Kurukh meansto seize’.” Hindus and other people has been seized any kurukh and used them a family servent or moneylenders continue to charge exorbitant rates of interest and fully exploit the Kurukhs and treat them as a family worker. Therefore it may be suggested that the name is derived from this characteristic of the Oraons. It was the opinion  that the word kurukh might be identified with the Kolarian horo, 'man', and explained the term Oraon as the totem of one of


 the septs into which the Kurukhs were divided. Its base being orgoran, hawk or cunny bird, used as the name of a totemistic sept. Someone, however, suggested a connection with the Kaikari, urupai, man; Burgandi urapo, man; urang, men. The Kaikaris are a Telugu caste, and as the Oraons are believed to have come from the south of India. In a similar way Kurukh may be connected with Tamil kurugu, an eagle, and be the name of a totemistic relations. Compare also names, such as Korava, Kurru, a dialect of Tamil, and Kudagu. In about 100 B.C Kurukhs were lived in Nerbudda valley after that they came to the Rohtasgah. The farm servant who pours the seed through the tube of the sowing-ploughis known as ‘Oraya’ in Nerbudda valley, this word is probably derived from the verb urna to pour, and means 'one who pours.' Since the principal characteristic of the Oraons among the Hindus is their universal employment as farm-servants and labourers, it may be suggested that the name is derived from this term. One other name by which Kurukhs are known to outsiders, Dhangar means a farm servant, Kuda a digger, and Kisan a cultivator. The name Oraon and its variant Orao is very close to Oraya, which, means a farm-servant.



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